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Fake News & How to Fight It!: Other Helpful Tools

Evaluating Sources using the CRAAP test


Use the following worksheet to help you evaluate your sources. Score each of the main categories 1 to 10 (1 = Worst; 10 = Best). Check your scores with the key at the bottom.

Currency: the timeliness of the information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . _____

  • When was the information published or posted? 
  • Has the information been revised or updated?
  • Is the information current or out-of date for your topic?
  • Are the links functional?

Relevance: the importance of the information for your needs . . . . . . . . . . . . . _____

  • Does the information relate to your topic or answer your question?
  • Who is the intended audience?
  • Is the information at an appropriate level (i.e. not too elementary or advanced for your needs)?
  • Have you looked at a variety of sources before determining this is one you will use?
  • Would you be comfortable using this source for a research paper?

Authority: the source of the information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . _____

  • Who is the author/publisher/source/sponsor?
  • Are the author's credentials or organizational affiliations given?
  • What are the author's credentials or organizational affiliations given?
  • What are the author's qualifications to write on the topic?
  • Is there contact information, such as a publisher or e-mail address?
  • Does the URL reveal anything about the author or source? For example:
    • .com (commercial)
    • .edu (educational)
    • .gov (U.S. government)
    • .org (nonprofit organization)
    • .net (network)

Accuracy: the reliability, truthfulness, and correctness of the content, and . . . . _____

  • Where does the information come from?
  • Is the information supported by evidence?
  • Has the information been reviewed or refereed?
  • Can you verify any of the information in another source or from personal knowledge?
  • Does the language or tone seem biased and free of emotion?
  • Are there spelling, grammar, or other typographical errors?

Purpose: the reason the information exists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . _____

  • What is the purpose of the information? to inform? teach? sell? entertain? persuade?
  • Do the authors/sponsors make their intentions or purpose clear?
  • Is the information fact? opinion? propaganda?
  • Does the point of view appear objective and impartial?
  • Are there political, ideological, cultural, religious, institutional, or personal biases?

45-50 Excellent; 40-44 Good; 35-39 Average; 30-34 Borderline Acceptable; Below 30 Unacceptable

Note: all credit for the CRAAP test goes to the librarians who developed it at Meriam Library at CSU Chico. 

Avoiding Plagiarism

Plagiarism on Campus

  • A resource of affordablecollegesonline. Created by Shelley Nicholson PhD canidate UMass Amherst.

Fact-Checking Images or Memes by Aloha Sargent of Cabrillo College

"Reverse Image Search" Using Google 

You can use the same strategies already presented to fact-check an image or meme. But, did you know there's a useful trick for finding the context and story behind an image? This will help you more quickly determine what others are saying about the image. Has it been digitally altered ("photoshopped"), or is it being shared out of context (misrepresented)?

Using Chrome as your browser, right-click the image and select "Search Google for image." Note: On a Mac, use Control-click. On a Chromebook, use Alt-click.

When you right-click an image from a meme, it will give you menu that includes "Search Google for this image"

Using Chrome (app), touch and hold the image, then select "Search Google for This Image" (note that you may first have to click a menu option to "Open in Chrome"):

Touching and holding on an image in Chrome on a phone gives a menu option to "Search Google for This Image"

You will get a list of any other websites where the image has been used, including previous fact-checks of the image, and perhaps even a link to the real version of the photo:

Google reverse image search results show a number of results indicating the photo was fake

The real image is shown in a Tweet from the Seahawks, showing the NFL player doing a victory dance without a burning flag

Citations & Attributions

Aloha Sargent of Cabrillo College.  "CCC Digital Learning Day 2019". Accessed 4/17/2019.