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Prelude to Biblical & Theological Studies THE105: Cite

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During your research and pre-writing stages, note the bibliographic source of quoted, paraphrased, and summarized material you plan to use. This will save time and prevent plagiarism during the drafting stage.


Avoid plagiarism  

  • Acknowledge a source when you quote, paraphrase, or summarize by citing in-text and including a list of works cited or references. 

  • Indicate with a signal phrase (“According to Smith” or “Jones claims”) and quotation marks when you are using the exact wording from a source. 

  • Document electronic sources completely and accurately. 

  • When paraphrasing, do not imitate the structure or wording of the original - that is considered plagiarism.  

What does not need to be cited? 

  • Quotes that are well known (“To be or not to be/ That is the question”) 

  • Information that is widely available in many sources (Pluto is no longer considered a planet) 

  • Information that is considered “common knowledge” (George Washington was the first U.S. president) 

(See Axelrod and Cooper, The St. Martin’s Guide to Writing (Boston, MA: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2016))